Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy enables the chemical characterization and identification of pollen samples, leading to a wide range of applications, such as paleoecology and allergology. This is of particular interest in the identification of grass (Poaceae) species since they have pollen grains of very similar morphology.

Unfortunately, the correct identification of FTIR microspectroscopy spectra of single pollen grains is hindered by strong spectral contributions from Mie scattering. Embedding of pollen samples in paraffin helps to retrieve infrared spectra without scattering artifacts. In this study, pollen samples from 10 different populations of five grass species (Anthoxanthum odoratum, Bromus inermis, Hordeum bulbosum, Lolium perenne, and Poa alpina) were embedded in paraffin, and their single grain spectra were obtained by FTIR microspectroscopy.

Spectra were subjected to different preprocessing in order to suppress paraffin influence on spectral classification. It is shown that decomposition by non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) and extended multiplicative signal correction (EMSC) that utilizes a paraffin constituent spectrum, respectively, leads to good success rates for the classification of spectra with respect to species by a partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model in full cross-validation for several species. PLS-DA, artificial neural network, and random forest classifiers were applied on the EMSC-corrected spectra using an independent validation to assign spectra from unknown populations to the species.

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hCRP FRET 100

CH1008-100 1 Kit
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hAlbumin TRF 100

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CD1b(100-1A5) Antibody

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BNC551044-100 100uL
EUR 199
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CD1b(100-1A5) Antibody

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Description: Primary antibody against CD1b(100-1A5), CF660R conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

CD1b(100-1A5) Antibody

BNC471044-100 100uL
EUR 199
Description: Primary antibody against CD1b(100-1A5), CF647 conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

CD1b(100-1A5) Antibody

BNC051044-100 100uL
EUR 199
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CD1b(100-1A5) Antibody

BNC401044-100 100uL
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CD1b(100-1A5) Antibody

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CD1b(100-1A5) Antibody

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BNC881044-100 100uL
EUR 199
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BNC941044-100 100uL
EUR 199
Description: Primary antibody against CD1b(100-1A5), CF594 conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

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BNC681044-100 100uL
EUR 199
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CD1b(100-1A5) Antibody

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EUR 199
Description: Primary antibody against CD1b(100-1A5), CF770 conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

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BNC811044-100 100uL
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IM1009-100 1 Kit
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RRVR-100 100pack
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Rv1009 (RpfB)-100

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100 bp DNA Ladder (100 bp ~ 1,500 bp, with loading dye)

W0636-100 NULL
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bcl-2(100/D5) Antibody

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bcl-2(100/D5) Antibody

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bcl-2(100/D5) Antibody

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bcl-2(100/D5) Antibody

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bcl-2(100/D5) Antibody

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bcl-2(100/D5) Antibody

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bcl-2(100/D5) Antibody

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bcl-2(100/D5) Antibody

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bcl-2(100/D5) Antibody

BNC940045-100 100uL
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BNC880045-100 100uL
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bcl-2(100/D5) Antibody

BNC680045-100 100uL
EUR 199
Description: Primary antibody against bcl-2(100/D5), CF568 conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

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bcl-2(100/D5 + 124) Antibody

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bcl-2(100/D5 + 124) Antibody

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bcl-2(100/D5 + 124) Antibody

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bcl-2(100/D5 + 124) Antibody

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bcl-2(100/D5 + 124) Antibody

BNC431234-100 100uL
EUR 199
Description: Primary antibody against bcl-2(100/D5 + 124), CF543 conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

bcl-2(100/D5 + 124) Antibody

BNC041234-100 100uL
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BNC801234-100 100uL
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bcl-2(100/D5 + 124) Antibody

BNCB1234-100 100uL
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Description: Primary antibody against bcl-2(100/D5 + 124), Biotin conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

bcl-2(100/D5 + 124) Antibody

BNCH1234-100 100uL
EUR 199
Description: Primary antibody against bcl-2(100/D5 + 124), Horseradish Peroxidase conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

bcl-2(100/D5 + 124) Antibody

BNC881234-100 100uL
EUR 199
Description: Primary antibody against bcl-2(100/D5 + 124), CF488A conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

bcl-2(100/D5 + 124) Antibody

BNC941234-100 100uL
EUR 199
Description: Primary antibody against bcl-2(100/D5 + 124), CF594 conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

bcl-2(100/D5 + 124) Antibody

BNC681234-100 100uL
EUR 199
Description: Primary antibody against bcl-2(100/D5 + 124), CF568 conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

bcl-2(100/D5 + 124) Antibody

BNC701234-100 100uL
EUR 199
Description: Primary antibody against bcl-2(100/D5 + 124), CF770 conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

bcl-2(100/D5 + 124) Antibody

BNCAP1234-100 100uL
EUR 199
Description: Primary antibody against bcl-2(100/D5 + 124), Alkaline Phosphatase conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

bcl-2(100/D5 + 124) Antibody

BNC811234-100 100uL
EUR 199
Description: Primary antibody against bcl-2(100/D5 + 124), CF680R conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

Microscope Slide Boxes,100-Place, Blue

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Microscope Slide Boxes,100-Place, Green

LC7003-100 100/CS
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LC7004-100 100/CS
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CCM1753-100 100 mL
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  • Product category: Culture Media

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09-9103-100 100 ml
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Variation within and between species, together with the differences in classification results, is in agreement with the systematics within the Poaceae family. The results illustrate the great potential of FTIR microspectroscopy for automated classification and identification of grass pollen, possibly together with other, complementary methods for single pollen chemical characterization.